Journal of The National Cancer Institute (1989 Aug 2) 81(15):1158-64 

Vegetables consumption and lung cancer risk: a population-based case-control study in Hawaii.  
Le Marchand L  Yoshizawa CN  Kolonel LN  Hankin JH Goodman MT
Epidemiology Program University of Hawaii Honolulu 96813.

We conducted a population-based study of diet and lung cancer among  the multiethnic population of Hawaii in 1983-1985. We completed interviews for 230 men and 102 women with lung cancer and 597 men and  268 women controls, frequency-matched to the patients by age and sex.  A quantitative dietary history assessed the usual intake of foods rich in vitamins A and C and carotenoids. A clear dose-dependent  negative association was demonstrated between dietary beta-carotene  and lung cancer risk in both sexes. After adjusting for smoking and  other covariates, the men in the lowest quartile of beta-carotene  intake had an odds ratio of 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.2)  compared to those in the highest quartile of intake. The corresponding odds ratio for women was 2.7 (95% confidence interval,  1.2-6.1). No clear association was found for retinol, vitamin C,  folic acid, iron, dietary fiber, or fruits. All vegetables, dark green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and tomatoes showed  stronger inverse associations with risk than beta-carotene. This observation suggests that other constituents of vegetables, such as  lutein, lycopene, and indoles, and others, may also protect against  lung cancer in humans.

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