80s and 90s Selected Paragraphs from
Research Articles relating to:

Cancer Prevention and Treatment
 based on Natural Sources.


“Ecological, case-control, and cohort studies present convincing evidence that diets rich in fresh fruit and vegetables protect against several common epithelial neoplasms”.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 1995 Jun 61(6 Suppl):1374S-1377S Fruit and vegetables consumption and cancer risk in a Mediterranean population. Tavani A La Vecchia C. Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri Milano Italy.
                                           View Abstract 1

"Although we cannot be certain which compounds are responsible, the evidence is overwhelming that an abundant intake of fruits and vegetables can play an important role in reducing cancer incidence.”

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION (1994 May) 59(5 Suppl):1162S-1165S.  Micronutrients and cancer risk. Willett WC. Department of Epidemiology Harvard School of Public Health Boston MA 02115.s
                                           View Abstract 2

The association between high intake of fruit and vegetables and low incidence of certain cancers is well established....  These findings strongly support the hypothesis that fruit and vegetables exert a cancer-protective effect via a decrease in oxidative damage to DNA.”
Cancer Research  (1996 Mar 15) 56(6):1291-5xe Antioxidant supplementation decreases  oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Duthie SJ  Ma A  Ross MA Collins AR Rowett Research Institute.  Bucksburn, Aberdeen Scotland. United Kingdom.
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In an analysis stratified by histological  type of lung cancer, the strongest inverse associations for vegetables and fruit were seen for large cell carcinoma... Analysis by  smoking status showed the inverse associations for most vegetables and fruit groups with lung cancer risk.”
Cancer Research (1993 Feb 1) 53(3):536-43u Vegetables, fruit, and lung cancer in the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Steinmetz KA, Potter JD, Folsom AR. Division of Epidemiology,  School of Public Health University of Minnesota.  Minneapolis 55454-1015.
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“Chlorophyllin, a derivative of the green plant pigment chlorophyll, was found to be a potent inhibitor of hepatocarcinogenesis...  Because of the abundance of chlorophyll in the human diet, it is suggested that this compound might be an important contributing  factor to the observed cancer preventive activities associated with a  high intake of vegetables and fruits.” ,
Diss Abstracts International  [B] (1995) 55(8):3242 Chlorophyllin anticarcinogenesis in the rainbow trout model. Breinholt V Oregon State Univ.
                                             View Abstract 5

The positive association of fruit and vegetables intake with lower  incidences of colon cancer is thought to be due to the presence of  both fiber and chemical inducers of NAD(P)H
FASEB Journal (1995) 9(4):A9889. Dual protective mechanisms of sodium butyrate and benzyl isothiocyanate in human colon cells: induction of detoxification  enzymes and apoptosis. Kirlin WG DeLong MJ  Jones DP. Emory University Sch. Medicine and Sch. Public Health. Atlanta GA 30322
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Epidemiologic studies have provided circumstantial evidence for cancer prevention by dietary vegetables and fruits.... Numerous factors could influence these results. Several studies have demonstrated potential antimutagenic properties of vegetables and fruit extracts.

Human Nutrition: A Comprehensive Treatise (1991) 7:221-60  Chemoprevention by Non-nutrients Components of Vegetables and Fruits Birt DF  Bresnick E Dept. of Biochemistry Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center Omaha NE 68105
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Vegetables and fruits contain certain compounds which can be converted to biologically active hormone-like substances, such as lignans and isoflavones, by intestinal flora. The interaction of these compounds with endogenous hormones may be a novel, diet-dependent mechanism in cancer prevention.
Cancer Research (1994 Feb 15) 54(4):957-61U Stimulation of pS2 expression by diet-derived compounds. Sathyamoorthy N  Wang TT Phang JM Laboratory of Nutritional and Molecular Regulation  National Cancer Institute  NIH, Frederick  Maryland 21702-1201.
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We conducted a population-based study of diet and lung cancer among the multiethnic population of Hawaii in 1983-1985....  This  observation suggests that other constituents of vegetables, such as lutein, lycopene, and indoles, and others, may also protect against lung cancer in humans.r
Journal of The National Cancer Institute (1989 Aug 2) 81(15):1158-64  Vegetables consumption and lung cancer risk: a population-based case-control study in Hawaii. Le Marchand L  Yoshizawa CN  Kolonel LN  Hankin JH Goodman MT Epidemiology Program University of Hawaii Honolulu 96813.
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"Vegetables consumption and fruit consumption were independently associated with statistically significant reductions of  breast cancer risk... vegetables and fruits are inversely, significantly, and  strongly associated with this risk."
JOURNAL of the Natioanl Cancer Institute. 1995 Jan 18) 87(2):110-6 Consumption of olive oil and specific food groups in relation to breast cancer risk in Greece.  Trichopoulou A Katsouyanni K  Stuver S  Tzala L Gnardellis C Rimm E Trichopoulos D  Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry Athens School of Public Health Greece.
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"..In this population, intake of vegetables appears to decrease premenopausal breast cancer risk... Evaluated  components found together in vegetables may have a synergistic effect on breast cancer risk; alternatively, other unmeasured factors in these foods may also influence risk."
Journal of the National  Cancer Insttitute (1996 Mar 20) 88(6):340-8  Premenopausal breast cancer risk and intake of vegetables, fruits, and related nutrients. Freudenheim JL Marshall JR  Vena JE Laughlin R Brasure JR Swanson MK  Nemoto T  Graham S Department of Social and Preventive Medicine School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences State University of New York at Buffalo 14214 USA.
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“Reduction of consumption of plant foods means reduced intake of a wide variety of substances that  lower cancer risk. Vegetables and fruit contain the anticarcinogenic  cocktail to which we are adapted. We abandon it at our peril.”
First International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease. February 20-23, 1994, Mesa, AZ, 1994 (1994):10 Diet, phytochemicals and cancer risk Potter JD Division of Epidemiology School of Public Health University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN 55454-1015
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The main source of dietary antioxidants is fruits and vegetables. Insufficient fruit and vegetables consumption increases the rate of most types of cancer about two fold as shown by about 200 epidemiological studies that are  remarkably consistent.
General Motors Cancer Research Foundation Annual Conference: Molecular Detection and Prevention of Cancer, June 20-21, 1995, Bethesda, MD, 1995. (1995) Causes and prevention of cancer (Meeting abstract). Ames AN University of California Berkeley CA 94720
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Vegetables and fruit are associated with lower colon cancer risk. The protective effect of Vegetables and fruit may act through changes in levels  of nutrients or other phytochemicals (antioxidants, fiber, indoles,  phenols, etc), gut physiology, or hormone levels.
American Society of Preventive Oncology, 19th Annual Meeting, March 8-11, 1995, Houston, TX, 1995. (1995) Feasibility of increasing vegetables and fruit intake for colon cancer prevention (Meeting abstract). Elmer PJ Fosdick L  Tharp TM  Smith SA  Laing B Potter J Division of Epidemiology University of Minnesota Minneapolis.  MNl
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“These compounds are commonly and primarily produced by plants and are found in many commonly consumed fruits and vegetables  including citrus fruits and food flavoring such as mints. The simplest monocyclic monoterpene, limonene, has been shown to prevent a variety of organ-specific cancer in rodent models”
Current Strategies of Cancer Chemoprevention, 13th International Symposium on Cancer.  July 6-9, 1993, Sapporo, Japan, 1993. (1993):18 Chemoprevention of mammary cancer by monoterpenes (Meeting abstract). Gould MN Dept. of Human Oncology  Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison Madison WI 53792
                                                 View Abstract 15

Epidemiological studies have shown that diets  containing large quantities of vegetables and, to a lesser extent,  fruits are associated with relatively low risks from cancer... As studies of the inhibitory  capacities of dietary non-nutrients continue, a clearer picture of their potential impact in cancer prevention is emerging.
Current Strategies of Cancer Chemoprevention,  13th International  Symposium on Cancer. July 6-9, 1993,  Sapporo, Japan, 1993. (1993):10 Chemoprevention of carcinogenesis by minor non-nutrient constituents of the diet  (Meeting abstract).  Wattenberg LW Dept. of Lab. Medicine and Pathology Univ. of Minnesota  Minneapolis MN 55455-0315
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"The lower risk of cancer observed in these studies among people who eat more carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables (and who consequently have higher blood levels of carotenoids) could be due to substances other  than carotenoids in these foods,.. For now, the most rational and prudent choice would be  to consume a diet high in fruits and vegetables"
Fourth International Conference on Prevention of Human Cancer:  Nutrition and Chemoprevention Controversies.  June 3-6, 1992, Tucson, AZ, A16, 1992. (1992) Retinoids or carotenoids: can I have another choice? (Meeting abstract). Greenberg ER Dartmouth Medical Sch. Hanover. NH
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“Epidemiologic and experimental  evidence strongly suggest that the risk for certain common cancers in  humans is influenced by dietary fctors, including macronutrients,  micronutrients and non-nutritive phytochemicals found in vegetables and fruits.  The NCI is supporting the Five-a-Day Program, a national effort with  the overall goal of increasing the per capita consumption of vegetables and fruits to five servings a day by the year 2000.”
Fourth International Conference on Prevention of Human Cancer:  Nutrition and Chemoprevention Controversies.  June 3-6, 1992, Tucson, AZ, A17, 1992. (1992) Dietary intervention and cancer prevention (Meeting abstract). Greenwald P NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CI. Bethesda. MD
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“It is conceivable that the decrease in mortality risk associated with higher initial plasma beta carotene concentrations in our study was actually a manifestation of the conjoint beneficial effects of a number of factors related to diet. If so, programs to change dietary patterns toward consumption of more vegetables, fruits, and grains may prove  more effective than altering intake of individual micronutrients such as beta carotene.”
JAMA.  Journal of the American Medical Association March 6 1996 Vol 275 No.9 pp 699-703 Mortality Associated With Low Plasma Concentration of Beta Carotene and the Effect of Oral Supplementation E. Robert Greenberg, MD; John A. Baron, MD; Margaret R. Karagas, PhD; Therese A. Stukel, PhD; David W. Nierenbergl. MD- Marguerite M. Stevens, PhD; Jack S. Mandel, PhD, Robert W. Haile, PhD From the Dartrmouth Medical School and Norris Cotton Cancer Center. Lebanon. NH (Drs Greenberg. Baron. Karagas. Stuke~. Nierenberg. and Stevens): University of Mnnesota School of Public Health. Minneapolis (Dr Mandel): and University of California. LosAngeles. School of Medicine and University ol Southern California School of Medicine (Dr Haile).
                                                 View Abstract 19

“It is concluded that consumption of higher levels of vegetables and fruit is associated consistently, although not universally, with a reduced risk of cancer at most sites. The association is most marked for epithelial cancers particularly those of the alimentary and respiratory tracts”
Cancer Causes and Control 2. 325-357. 1991 Vegetables, fruit, and cancer. I Epidemiology Kristi A. Steinmetz and John D. Potter Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health,  University of Minnesota. Minneapolis. MNst
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